Thermal Irradiation Creep Zr4

Object used for Zr4 cladding in LWR simulations

warning:Deprecated Solid Mechanics Material

The functionality of this solid mechanics material is being replaced in the TensorMechanics system by ZryCreepHayesHoppeUpdate.

Description

The ThermalIrradiationCreepZr4 is used for Zr4 cladding in LWR simulations. The material includes models for the temperature, irradiation, and stress effects on cladding creep.

Irradiation Creep

Irradiation-induced creep of cladding materials is based on an empirical model developed by Hoppe (1991) that relates the creep rate to the current fast neutron flux and stress. The specific relation implemented is: (1) where is the effective irradiation creep rate (1/s), is the fast neutron flux (n/m-s), is the effective (Mises) stress (MPa), and , , and are material constants. The material constants , , and are shown in Table 1 for different cladding materials. Note that the original Hoppe formulation is given in terms of circumferential stress, whereas the relation implemented in Bison assumes an effective (Mises) stress.

Table 1: Values of the Material Constants , , and for Different Cladding Materials

Clad Type
SRA3.5570.851.0
RXA1.6540.851.0
PRXA2.7140.851.0
ZIRLO2.8460.851.0

where, SRA = stress relief annealed; RXA = recrystallization annealed; PRXA = partially recrystallization annealed; ZIRLO = SRA ZIRLO.

Thermal Creep

Two thermal creep models are available. The Hayes model describes only secondary creep while the Limback model includes both primary and secondary creep.

Secondary thermal creep of zirconium alloys was thoroughly investigated by Hayes and Kassner (2006) and found to be well-described by a traditional power-law creep formulation. The specific equation recommended there and implemented in Bison is (2) where is the effective thermal creep rate (1/s), is the effective (Mises) stress (Pa), Q is the activation energy (J/mol), R is the universal gas constant (J/mol-K), T is the temperature (K), G is the shear modulus (Pa), and A, and n are material constants.

For Zr-4, Moon et al. (2006) recommend a temperature dependent shear modulus given by G = 4.2519 10 - 2.2185 10 T and Hayes and Kassner (2006) specify a creep law power (n) of 5. A value for A is not reported in Hayes and Kassner (2006); however, based on experimental data presented there, an approximate value of A = 3.14 10 (1/s) was computed.

Example Input Syntax

[./creep]
  type = ThermalIrradiationCreepZr4
  block = 1
  youngs_modulus = 2.e11
  poissons_ratio = .3
  fast_neutron_flux = fast_neutron_flux
  a_coef = 3.14e24
  disp_r = disp_x
  disp_z = disp_y
  temp = temp
[../]
(test/tests/thermal_irradiation_creep/thermal_irradiation_creep_rz_function_test.i)

Input Parameters

  • constitutive_modelConstitutiveModel to use (optional)

    C++ Type:std::string

    Description:ConstitutiveModel to use (optional)

  • cracking_stress0The stress threshold beyond which cracking occurs. Must be positive.

    Default:0

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The stress threshold beyond which cracking occurs. Must be positive.

  • store_stress_olderFalseParameter which indicates whether the older stress state, required for HHT time integration, needs to be stored

    Default:False

    C++ Type:bool

    Description:Parameter which indicates whether the older stress state, required for HHT time integration, needs to be stored

  • cracking_releaseabruptThe cracking release type. Choices are abrupt (default) and exponential.

    Default:abrupt

    C++ Type:std::string

    Description:The cracking release type. Choices are abrupt (default) and exponential.

  • activation_energy270000The activation energy

    Default:270000

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The activation energy

  • formulationElement formulation. Choices are: Nonlinear3D NonlinearRZ AxisymmetricRZ SphericalR Linear PlaneStrain NonlinearPlaneStrain

    C++ Type:MooseEnum

    Description:Element formulation. Choices are: Nonlinear3D NonlinearRZ AxisymmetricRZ SphericalR Linear PlaneStrain NonlinearPlaneStrain

  • fast_neutron_fluxThe fast neutron flux

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:The fast neutron flux

  • cracking_beta1The coefficient used in the exponetional model.

    Default:1

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The coefficient used in the exponetional model.

  • compute_InteractionIntegralFalseWhether to compute the Interaction Integral.

    Default:False

    C++ Type:bool

    Description:Whether to compute the Interaction Integral.

  • thermal_expansion_reference_temperatureReference temperature for mean thermal expansion function.

    C++ Type:double

    Description:Reference temperature for mean thermal expansion function.

  • stress_free_temperatureThe stress-free temperature. If not specified, the initial temperature is used.

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The stress-free temperature. If not specified, the initial temperature is used.

  • youngs_modulusYoung's modulus of the material.

    C++ Type:double

    Description:Young's modulus of the material.

  • gas_constant8.3143The universal gas constant

    Default:8.3143

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The universal gas constant

  • poissons_ratioPoisson's ratio for the material.

    C++ Type:double

    Description:Poisson's ratio for the material.

  • compute_methodThe method used in the stress calculation.

    C++ Type:MooseEnum

    Description:The method used in the stress calculation.

  • increment_calculationRashidApproxThe algorithm to use when computing the incremental strain and rotation (RashidApprox or Eigen). For use with Nonlinear3D/RZ formulation.

    Default:RashidApprox

    C++ Type:std::string

    Description:The algorithm to use when computing the incremental strain and rotation (RashidApprox or Eigen). For use with Nonlinear3D/RZ formulation.

  • n_exponent5The exponent in the thermal creep term

    Default:5

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The exponent in the thermal creep term

  • strain_zzThe zz strain

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:The zz strain

  • volumetric_locking_correctionTrueSet to false to turn off volumetric locking correction

    Default:True

    C++ Type:bool

    Description:Set to false to turn off volumetric locking correction

  • output_iteration_infoFalseSet true to output sub-newton iteration information

    Default:False

    C++ Type:bool

    Description:Set true to output sub-newton iteration information

  • boundaryThe list of boundary IDs from the mesh where this boundary condition applies

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:The list of boundary IDs from the mesh where this boundary condition applies

  • youngs_modulus_functionYoung's modulus as a function of temperature.

    C++ Type:FunctionName

    Description:Young's modulus as a function of temperature.

  • active_crack_planesPlanes on which cracks are allowed (0,1,2 -> x,z,theta in RZ)

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:Planes on which cracks are allowed (0,1,2 -> x,z,theta in RZ)

  • disp_zThe z displacement

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:The z displacement

  • disp_yThe y displacement

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:The y displacement

  • cracking_residual_stress0The fraction of the cracking stress allowed to be maintained following a crack.

    Default:0

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The fraction of the cracking stress allowed to be maintained following a crack.

  • shear_modulusThe shear modulus of the material.

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The shear modulus of the material.

  • c1_exponent0.85The exponent on the irradiation creep fast neutron flux term

    Default:0.85

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The exponent on the irradiation creep fast neutron flux term

  • scalar_strain_zzThe zz strain (scalar variable)

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:The zz strain (scalar variable)

  • thermal_expansion_function_typeType of thermal expansion function. Choices are: instantaneous mean

    C++ Type:MooseEnum

    Description:Type of thermal expansion function. Choices are: instantaneous mean

  • disp_rThe r displacement

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:The r displacement

  • appended_property_nameName appended to material properties to make them unique

    C++ Type:std::string

    Description:Name appended to material properties to make them unique

  • c0_coef9.881e-28The leading coefficient in the irradiation creep term

    Default:9.881e-28

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The leading coefficient in the irradiation creep term

  • c2_exponent1The exponent on the irradiation creep stress term

    Default:1

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The exponent on the irradiation creep stress term

  • bulk_modulusThe bulk modulus for the material.

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The bulk modulus for the material.

  • outputThe reporting postprocessor to use for the max_iterations value.

    C++ Type:std::string

    Description:The reporting postprocessor to use for the max_iterations value.

  • poissons_ratio_functionPoisson's ratio as a function of temperature.

    C++ Type:FunctionName

    Description:Poisson's ratio as a function of temperature.

  • dep_matl_propsNames of material properties this material depends on.

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:Names of material properties this material depends on.

  • disp_xThe x displacement

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:The x displacement

  • large_strainFalseWhether to include large strain terms in AxisymmetricRZ, SphericalR, and PlaneStrain formulations.

    Default:False

    C++ Type:bool

    Description:Whether to include large strain terms in AxisymmetricRZ, SphericalR, and PlaneStrain formulations.

  • model_primary_creepFalseSet true to turn on primary creep model

    Default:False

    C++ Type:bool

    Description:Set true to turn on primary creep model

  • initial_stressThe initial stress tensor (xx, yy, zz, xy, yz, zx)

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:The initial stress tensor (xx, yy, zz, xy, yz, zx)

  • computeTrueWhen false, MOOSE will not call compute methods on this material. The user must call computeProperties() after retrieving the Material via MaterialPropertyInterface::getMaterial(). Non-computed Materials are not sorted for dependencies.

    Default:True

    C++ Type:bool

    Description:When false, MOOSE will not call compute methods on this material. The user must call computeProperties() after retrieving the Material via MaterialPropertyInterface::getMaterial(). Non-computed Materials are not sorted for dependencies.

  • tempCoupled Temperature

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:Coupled Temperature

  • max_its10Maximum number of sub-newton iterations

    Default:10

    C++ Type:unsigned int

    Description:Maximum number of sub-newton iterations

  • cracking_neg_fractionThe fraction of the cracking strain at which a transitition begins during decreasing strain to the original stiffness.

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The fraction of the cracking strain at which a transitition begins during decreasing strain to the original stiffness.

  • thermal_expansion_functionThermal expansion coefficient as a function of temperature.

    C++ Type:FunctionName

    Description:Thermal expansion coefficient as a function of temperature.

  • compute_JIntegralFalseWhether to compute the J Integral.

    Default:False

    C++ Type:bool

    Description:Whether to compute the J Integral.

  • a_coef3.14e+24The leading coefficent in the thermal creep term

    Default:3.14e+24

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The leading coefficent in the thermal creep term

  • max_cracks3The maximum number of cracks allowed at a material point.

    Default:3

    C++ Type:unsigned int

    Description:The maximum number of cracks allowed at a material point.

  • thermal_expansionThe thermal expansion coefficient.

    C++ Type:double

    Description:The thermal expansion coefficient.

  • cracking_stress_functionThe cracking stress as a function of time and location

    C++ Type:FunctionName

    Description:The cracking stress as a function of time and location

  • absolute_tolerance1e-20Absolute convergence tolerance for sub-newtion iteration

    Default:1e-20

    C++ Type:double

    Description:Absolute convergence tolerance for sub-newtion iteration

  • relative_tolerance0.0001Relative convergence tolerance for sub-newtion iteration

    Default:0.0001

    C++ Type:double

    Description:Relative convergence tolerance for sub-newtion iteration

  • blockThe list of block ids (SubdomainID) that this object will be applied

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:The list of block ids (SubdomainID) that this object will be applied

  • lambdaLame's first parameter for the material.

    C++ Type:double

    Description:Lame's first parameter for the material.

Optional Parameters

  • enableTrueSet the enabled status of the MooseObject.

    Default:True

    C++ Type:bool

    Description:Set the enabled status of the MooseObject.

  • use_displaced_meshFalseWhether or not this object should use the displaced mesh for computation. Note that in the case this is true but no displacements are provided in the Mesh block the undisplaced mesh will still be used.

    Default:False

    C++ Type:bool

    Description:Whether or not this object should use the displaced mesh for computation. Note that in the case this is true but no displacements are provided in the Mesh block the undisplaced mesh will still be used.

  • control_tagsAdds user-defined labels for accessing object parameters via control logic.

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:Adds user-defined labels for accessing object parameters via control logic.

  • seed0The seed for the master random number generator

    Default:0

    C++ Type:unsigned int

    Description:The seed for the master random number generator

  • implicitTrueDetermines whether this object is calculated using an implicit or explicit form

    Default:True

    C++ Type:bool

    Description:Determines whether this object is calculated using an implicit or explicit form

  • constant_onNONEWhen ELEMENT, MOOSE will only call computeQpProperties() for the 0th quadrature point, and then copy that value to the other qps.When SUBDOMAIN, MOOSE will only call computeSubdomainProperties() for the 0th quadrature point, and then copy that value to the other qps. Evaluations on element qps will be skipped

    Default:NONE

    C++ Type:MooseEnum

    Description:When ELEMENT, MOOSE will only call computeQpProperties() for the 0th quadrature point, and then copy that value to the other qps.When SUBDOMAIN, MOOSE will only call computeSubdomainProperties() for the 0th quadrature point, and then copy that value to the other qps. Evaluations on element qps will be skipped

Advanced Parameters

  • output_propertiesList of material properties, from this material, to output (outputs must also be defined to an output type)

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:List of material properties, from this material, to output (outputs must also be defined to an output type)

  • outputsnone Vector of output names were you would like to restrict the output of variables(s) associated with this object

    Default:none

    C++ Type:std::vector

    Description:Vector of output names were you would like to restrict the output of variables(s) associated with this object

Outputs Parameters

Input Files

References

  1. T. A. Hayes and M. Kassner. Creep of zirconium and zirconium alloys. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 37A:2389–2396, 2006.[BibTeX]
  2. N. E. Hoppe. Engineering model for zircaloy creep and growth. In Proceedings of the ANS-ENS International Topical Meeting on LWR Fuel Performance, 157–172. Avignon, France, April 21-24, 1991.[BibTeX]
  3. J.H. Moon, P.E. Cantonwine, K.R. Anderson, S. Karthikeyan, and M.J. Mills. Characterization and modeling of creep mechanisms in zircaloy-4. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 353(3):177 – 189, 2006. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2006.01.023.[BibTeX]